Problem solving - Wikipedia, Problem solving theory in social case work
Problem solving theory in social case work
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Problem solving is used when products or processes fail, so corrective action can be taken to prevent further failures . It can also be applied to a product or process prior to an actual fail event, ., when a potential problem can be predicted and analyzed, and mitigation applied so the problem never actually occurs. Techniques such as Failure Mode Effects Analysis can be used to proactively reduce the likelihood of problems occurring.
Social problem-solving theory and processes have been used in intervention and therapeutic processes.  In fact, a supportive problem-solving approach to therapy has been shown to be very effective in the reduction of depression symptoms.   Children with autism and young neuro-typical children have been shown to increase their social problem-solving skills through a computer interface.  Social problem-solving therapy has also been integrated into intervention packages for law offenders with personality disorders.  Participants were shown to improve in most areas of measured social problem-solving skills.
Schoenfeld, A. (1987). Cognitive Science and Mathematics Education. Hillsdale , NJ: Erlbaum Assoc.
Schoenfeld presents a theory of problem-solving in mathematics that involves four aspects: resources, heuristics, control, and beliefs. Although this framework was specifically developed for mathematical problem-solving, it seems more generally applicable. Bransford et al. present a problem-solving approach to the use of hypermedia in their anchored instructional theory.
“A problem arises when a living creature has a goal but does not know how this goal is to be reached. Whenever one cannot go from the given situation to the desired situation simply by action, then there is recourse to thinking... Such thinking has the task of devising some action which may mediate between the existing and the desired situations.”
This book is ideal for students who have mastered basic algebra, such as solving linear equations. Middle school students preparing for MATHCOUNTS, high school students preparing for the AMC, and other students seeking to master the fundamentals of number theory will find this book an instrumental part of their mathematics libraries.
In developing her problem-solving model, Perlman utilized the best features of these intervention schemes but infused them with even greater attention to client problem-solving efforts and capacities (Perlman, 1970). First in a journal article in 1953 (Perlman, 1971b) and finally fully in her book, Social Casework, a problem-solving process (Perlman, 1957), she laid out the intervention stages required by her model. These can be outlined briefly as follows:
Behaviourist researchers argued that problem solving was a reproductive process; that is, organisms faced with a problem applied behaviour that had been successful on a previous occasion. Successful behaviour was itself believed to have been arrived at through a process of trial-and-error. In 1911 Edward Thorndike had developed his law of effect after observing cats discover how to escape from the cage into which he had placed them. This greatly influenced the behaviourist view of problem solving:
Rather than having a teacher provide facts and then testing students ability to recall these facts via memorization, PBL attempts to get students to apply knowledge to new situations. Students are faced with contextualized, ill-structured problems and are asked to investigate and discover meaningful solutions.
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The cognitive approach to problem solving Problem space theory. In 1972, Allen Newell and Herbert Simon published the book Human Problem Solving, ...
Matt Davies lectures in International Political Economy at Newcastle University and is the Degree Programme Director for the MA in World Politics and Popular Culture . He is also a co-editor of the Popular Culture and World Politics book series , published by Routledge.
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A Generative Theory of Problem Solving - cogsys.org
Problem Solving - Cognitive Psychology
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problem solving theory in social case work
problem solving theory in social case work