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Henry VIII of England - Wikipedia, Henry viii of england essay

Henry viii of england essay

1. Elizabeth I Tudor, Queen of England b. 7 Sep 1533, d. 24 Mar 1603 2. Henry Tudor, Duke of Cornwall b. c Aug 1534, d. c Aug 1534 3. stillborn son Tudor b. 29 Jan 1536, d. 29 Jan 1536

[W]hoever leads an auspicious life here and governs the commonwealth rightly, as my most noble father did, who promoted all piety and banished all ignorance, has a most certain way to heaven.

King of England ; Reign: 22 August 1485 – 21 April 1509: Coronation: 30 October 1485: Predecessor: Richard III: Successor: Henry VIII

An accomplished musician, Henry VIII of England wrote a song entitled "Pastime With Good Company" that was popular throughout Renaissance Europe.

In 1513, the new king allied with the Holy Roman Emperor, Maximillian I , and invaded France with a large, well-equipped army, but achieved little at a considerable financial cost. Maximillian, for his part, used the English invasion to his own ends, and this prejudiced England's ability to defeat the French. This foray would prove the start of an obsession for Henry, who invaded again in 1544. This time, Henry's forces captured the important city of Boulogne , but again the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V , supported Henry only as long as he needed to and England, strained by the enormous cost of the war, ransomed the city back for peace.

Henry won the throne when his forces defeated Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field. He was the last king of England to win his throne on the field of battle. Henry cemented his claim by marrying Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV and niece of Richard III. Henry was successful in restoring the power and stability of the English monarchy after the political upheavals of the civil wars known as the Wars of the Roses. He founded the Tudor dynasty and, after a reign of nearly 24 years, was peacefully succeeded by his son, Henry VIII.

Shortly after acceding to the throne Henry VIII married Arthur’s widow, Catherine of Aragon. He then became active in international—and military—affairs, pursuing a campaign against France. This was organised by Thomas Wolsey, who revealed considerable organisational ability and who, by 1515, had been promoted to Archbishop, Cardinal and Chief Minister. For much of his early reign Henry ruled from a distance through the greatly capable Wolsey, who became one of the most powerful ministers in English history and a friend of the king.

The Virgin Queen explores the full sweep of Elizabeth's life: from her days of fear as a potential victim of her sister's terror; through her great love affair with Robert Dudley; into her ... See full summary  »

We als o forget that this was a different point in time, and women did not have the same freedom of choice as they today in free societies. Women were nonetheless assertive. In her biography on the Woodvilles, Susan Higginbotham, wittily ends her first chapter by loosely quoting Jane Austen, stating that a king -especially a new one- was in dire need of a wife to preserve his dynasty.

Henry was born at Greenwich Palace on 28 June 1491, as the second son of Henry VII of England and Elizabeth of York . He had an elder brother, who was called Arthur, Prince of Wales , and two sisters, who were called Margaret and Mary . Arthur should have been king after their father died, but he died before his father, making Henry next in line for the throne. Henry married Arthur's widow, Catherine of Aragon . He is credited as a talented composer and author. However, King Henry VIII was famously unpredictable and temperamental with many of his subjects executed under his orders, including two of his own wives.

Deciding he will no longer have further children (Katherine only had one false pregnancy despite all of Henry's 'attentions') Henry instead goes back to his warlike ways, seeking war first with Scotland and later with France.  His success against Scotland (mainly thanks to a new royal favorite of his, the Earl of Surrey) perhaps convinces him that France is the next target, and at long last he makes a new alliance with Emperor Charles. 

Henry III (1 October 1207–16 November 1272) became King of England in 1216 when he was less than ten years old. He continued to be king for 56 years until he died in 1272. He was married to Eleanor of Provence . He is creditied for re-developing certain aspects of Westminister Abbey and his interest in architecture and decoration. He improved the Tower of London's defences and kept lions, an elephant and a polar bear in the tower. Discovered after his death, his tomb reveals Henry III was about 5’ 6” tall and had a drooping left eyelid. Henry was an unpopular monarch.

More serious was Henry’s determination to engage in military adventure. Europe was being kept on the boil by rivalries between the French and Spanish kingdoms, mostly over Italian claims; and, against the advice of his older councillors, Henry in 1512 joined his father-in-law, Ferdinand II of Aragon, against France and ostensibly in support of a threatened pope, to whom the devout king for a long time paid almost slavish respect.

His contemporaries considered Henry in his prime to be an attractive, educated and accomplished king. He has been described as "one of the most charismatic rulers to sit on the English throne". [3] He was an author and composer. As he aged, Henry became severely obese and his health suffered, contributing to his death in 1547. He is frequently characterised in his later life as a lustful, egotistical, harsh, and insecure king. [4] He was succeeded by his son Edward VI .

In 1487 King Ferdinand agreed to send ambassadors to England to discuss political and economic relations and to negotiate the marriage of Catherine and Arthur. Henry VII was worried that England might be invaded by stronger European countries. In 1488 Henry signed a treaty with Ferdinand. By this treaty Henry agreed that his eldest son, Arthur, should marry Catherine. (2)

At the age of 17, Henry married Catherine of Aragon, Spain, and the two were crowned at Westminster Abbey. Henry VIII’s father wanted to affirm his family's alliance with Spain, so he offered his young son to Catherine, who was the widow of Henry’s brother Arthur. The two families requested that Pope Julius II officially grant dispensation to Arthur and Catherine's marriage. The pope conceded, but the official marriage of Henry and Catherine was postponed until the death of Henry VII in 1509.

Henry can also be credited with a number of administrative, economic and diplomatic initiatives. He paid very close attention to detail, and instead of spending lavishly he concentrated on raising new revenues. His new taxes were unpopular and when Henry VIII succeeded him he executed his two most hated tax collectors.

According to the Venetian Mario Savorgnano, by this time Mary was developing into a pretty, well-proportioned young lady with a fine complexion. [28]


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Henry VII of England - Wikipedia

BBC History - Henry VIII

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henry viii of england essay
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