Low birth weight - Wikipedia, Low birth weight dissertation
Low birth weight dissertation
Among regions, South Asia has the highest incidence of low birthweight, with one in four newborns weighing less than 2,500 grams. South Asia also has the highest rate of infants not weighed at birth, at 66 per cent. Although data on low birthweight are adjusted to account for under-reporting, they are still likely to underestimate the true magnitude of the problem in the region.
"We saw this difference in risk between boys and girls," says Diana Schendel, PhD, lead health scientist at the National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities at the CDC in Atlanta. The gender finding was unexpected, she says, especially since autism is much more common in boys. Schendel is a researcher of the study, published in Pediatrics.
Explaining their results, Dr Verena Sengpiel, from Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden, who led the project said, "Although caffeine consumption is strongly correlated with smoking which is known to increase the risk for both preterm delivery and the baby being small for gestational age at birth (SGA). In this study we found no association between either total caffeine or coffee caffeine and preterm delivery but we did find an association between caffeine and SGA. This association remained even when we looked only at non-smoking mothers which implies that the caffeine itself is also having an effect on birth weight."
Another cause of low birthweight is intrauterine growth restriction. This occurs when a baby does not grow well in utero because of problems with the placenta, the mother's health or birth defects. Babies with Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) may be born early or full-term; premature babies with IUGR may be very small and physically immature, and full-term babies with IUGR may be physically mature but weak.
Special growth charts exist for infants born prematurely with low or very low birth weight. In order to use these growth charts, an adjustment will need to be made for gestational age. This adjustment requires knowing how many weeks premature a child was born.
Many people think that having a baby that's born on time and just small, or a baby who's just a little early, won't cause the baby any problems.
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Intrauterine growth restriction babies are also known as growth-restricted, small-for-gestational age, or small-for-date babies. Sometimes a mother goes full term in her pregnancy and still gives birth to a low birth weight baby. In most cases, these babies are relatively healthy, just small. The parent’s genetics or other factors such as the expectant mother’s lifestyle while she was pregnant may be reasons why a full term baby is born with a low birth weight. There are two major kinds of intrauterine growth restriction infants, symmetrical and asymmetrical, with symmetrical having a greater frequency of medical issues.
Of additional concern are disparate improvements in BWSMRs for blacks and whites over time. During the 1980s, BWSMRs for black VLBW infants were lower than for white VLBW infants. Although these differences are poorly understood, the relative advantage of lower BWSMRs among VLBW blacks has disappeared. Because BWSMRs are influenced by access to quality obstetric and neonatal care, particularly among VLBW births, differential access might exist for blacks compared with whites. Declines in neonatal mortality because of improvements in treatment for specific medical disorders (., respiratory distress syndrome) have been greater for whites than for blacks ( 10 ).
Factors which may cause a baby to have a low birth weight include the mother being a smoker and the baby being a twin or other multiple birth sibling.
Some low birth weight babies may be more at risk for certain health problems. Some may become sick in the first days of life or develop infections. Others may suffer from longer-term problems such as delayed motor and social development or learning disabilities.
The primary cause of very low birthweight is preterm birth (born before 37 weeks gestation). Very low birthweight babies are often born before 30 weeks of pregnancy. Being born early means a baby has less time in the mother's uterus to grow and gain weight. Much of a baby's weight is gained during the latter part of pregnancy.
Studies have been conducted to investigate how a person's birth weight can influence aspects of their future life. This includes theorised links with obesity , diabetes and intelligence .
“Two major causes for low birth weight in newborns are premature birth and intrauterine growth restriction, a condition in which the foetus experiences poor growth in the womb, often due to poor maternal nutrition,” says Associate Professor Yeo Cheo Lian , Senior Consultant, Department of Neonatal & Developmental Medicine at Singapore General Hospital (SGH), a member of the SingHealth group.
Babies who are born weighing less than 2,500 grams (5 pounds, 8 ounces) are said to have low birth weight. The average weight of a baby at birth is around eight pounds. If babies are born between 37 to 42 weeks but weigh less, they are considered as low birth weight for a full term. Sponsored
The goal is to achieve a 30% reduction in the number of infants born with a weight lower than 2500 g by the year 2025. This would translate into a 3% relative reduction per year between 2012 and 2025 and a reduction from approximately 20 million to about 14 million infants with low weight at birth.
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LOW BIRTHWEIGHT - WHO
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low birth weight dissertation
low birth weight dissertation