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Allen Newell - Wikipedia, Allen newell and herbert simon human problem solving (newell & simon 1972)

Allen newell and herbert simon human problem solving (newell & simon 1972)

Allen Newell and Herbert Simon , 1975 Turing Award Lecture [2] , Communications of the ACM 19 (3), (March 1976): p. 113–126.

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In 1933, Simon entered the University of Chicago , and following those early influences, he studied the social sciences and mathematics. He was interested in biology, but chose not to study it because of his "color-blindness and awkwardness in the laboratory". [15] He chose instead to focus on political science and economics . His most important mentor was Henry Schultz , an econometrician and mathematical economist . [2] Simon received both his . (1936) and his . (1943) in political science, from the University of Chicago, where he studied under Harold Lasswell , Nicholas Rashevsky, Rudolf Carnap, Henry Schultz, and Charles Edward Merriam . [16]

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In September 1954, Newell enrolled in a seminar where Oliver Selfridge "described a running computer program that learned to recognize letters and other patterns" (Simon). This was when Allen came to believe that systems may be created and contain intelligence and have the ability to adapt. With this in mind, Allen, after a couple months, wrote in 1955 The Chess Machine: An Example of Dealing with a Complex Task by Adaptation , which "outlined an imaginative design for a computer program to play chess in humanoid fashion" (Simon).

He is best known for his work on the theory of corporate decision making known as “ behaviourism .” In his influential book Administrative Behavior (1947), Simon sought to replace the highly simplified classical approach to economic modeling—based on a concept of the single decision-making, profit-maximizing entrepreneur—with an approach that recognized multiple factors that contribute to decision making. According to Simon, this theoretical framework provides a more realistic understanding of a world in which decision making can affect prices and outputs.

Simon was educated in political science at the University of Chicago (., 1936, ., 1943). Since 1949, he has been a faculty member at Carnegie Mellon University, where he is Richard King Mellon University Professor of Computer Science & Psychology.

Allen Newell was born in San Francisco on March 19, 1927 to Robert R. Newell, a prominent professor of radiology at Stanford Medical School, and Jeanette La Valley ...

In joint scientific efforts extending over twenty years, initially in collaboration with J. C. Shaw at the RAND Corporation, and subsequentially with numerous faculty and student collegues at Carnegie-Mellon University, Newell and co-recipient Herbert A. Simon made basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing.

Newell was the founding president (1979–80) of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence. He was awarded the . National Medal of Science in 1992.

His work came to the attention of economist (and future nobel laureate) Herbert Simon , and, together with programmer J. C. Shaw , they developed the first true artificial intelligence program, the Logic Theorist . Newell's work on the program laid the foundations of the field. His inventions included: list processing , the most important programming paradigm used by AI ever since; the application of means-ends analysis to general reasoning (or "reasoning as search"); and the use of heuristics to limit the search space.

Simon was consulting RAND Corporation in the early 1950s, and while seeing there a printer typing out a map, using ordinary letters, digits and punctuation as symbols, he realized that a machine that could manipulate symbols could just as well simulate decision making and possibly even the process of human thought.

A native of San Francisco, Newell received a bachelor's degree in physics from Stanford University in 1949. He spent a year at Princeton University doing graduate work in mathematics, and worked for the Rand Corporation as a research scientist from 1950 to 1961. While at Rand, he met Nobel Laureate Herbert A. Simon, then a professor of industrial administration at Carnegie Institute of Technology, now Carnegie Mellon University. Their discussions on how human thinking could be modeled led Newell to go to Pittsburgh so the two could collaborate. Newell earned a doctor's degree in industrial administration from CIT's business school in 1957.


Allen newell and herbert simon human problem solving (newell & simon 1972)

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Allen Newell | American computer scientist | Britannica.com

Allen Newell - A.M. Turing Award Winner

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